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Is Meta-Synthesis Qualitative or Quantitative?

meta-synthesis vs meta-analysis

Meta-synthesis plays a vital role in research by synthesizing and interpreting findings from multiple studies. However, the question often arises: Is meta-synthesis qualitative or quantitative in nature? In this comprehensive article, we unravel the nature of meta-synthesis and explore whether it leans towards a qualitative or quantitative approach. By understanding the characteristics of meta-synthesis, we can appreciate its unique contribution to the synthesis of research findings.

Defining Meta-Synthesis:

Meta-synthesis refers to the process of integrating and interpreting qualitative research findings from multiple studies. It aims to generate new insights, theories, or frameworks by examining the commonalities, patterns, and themes across the included studies. Meta-synthesis goes beyond a mere summary of findings by providing a deeper understanding of the subjective experiences, perspectives, and contexts associated with the research topic.

The Qualitative Nature of Meta-Synthesis:

Meta-synthesis predominantly aligns with a qualitative approach. It focuses on synthesizing qualitative data obtained from primary research studies. The qualitative data may include textual information such as interview transcripts, observations, or narrative descriptions. By employing qualitative methods, meta-synthesis seeks to uncover the underlying meanings, interpretations, and subjective experiences present in the included studies.

Key Characteristics of Qualitative Meta-Synthesis:

  1. Interpretation of Context: Qualitative meta-synthesis emphasizes the interpretation of context and the exploration of the social, cultural, and historical factors that influence the research topic. It seeks to understand the complex interplay between the participants, their experiences, and the broader societal context.
  2. Inductive Analysis: Meta-synthesis employs inductive analysis methods to identify common patterns, themes, or theories across the included studies. It involves a bottom-up approach, allowing themes and concepts to emerge from the data, rather than imposing preconceived categories or theories.
  3. Subjective Experiences: Qualitative meta-synthesis aims to capture and integrate the subjective experiences and perspectives of the participants. It seeks to highlight the richness and diversity of individual accounts, giving voice to the participants’ unique viewpoints.
  4. Reflexivity and Interpretive Lens: The researchers conducting a qualitative meta-synthesis bring their own interpretive lens to the analysis process. They reflect on their biases, assumptions, and preconceptions, acknowledging the influence of their perspective on the synthesis of findings.

Overlapping Aspects with Quantitative Methods:

While meta-synthesis is primarily qualitative in nature, there can be some overlapping aspects with quantitative methods. It is important to note that the distinction between qualitative and quantitative approaches is not always rigid and can vary based on the research context and the specific objectives of the meta-synthesis.

  1. Quantitative Data Extraction: In some instances, meta-synthesis may involve the extraction of quantitative data from primary studies. This can include numerical data such as demographic information, sample sizes, or statistical results. However, the primary focus remains on the qualitative aspects and the synthesis of qualitative findings.
  2. Mixed Methods Studies: Meta-synthesis may also include studies that employ mixed methods, combining qualitative and quantitative data collection and analysis techniques. In such cases, the synthesis process incorporates both qualitative and quantitative findings, acknowledging the complementary nature of the data.


In conclusion, meta-synthesis leans towards a qualitative approach, emphasizing the integration and interpretation of qualitative research findings. It explores the subjective experiences, perspectives, and contexts associated with the research topic,

providing a deeper understanding of the phenomenon under investigation. While the primary focus is on qualitative data, there can be instances of overlapping with quantitative methods, such as the extraction of numerical data or the inclusion of mixed methods studies.

Understanding the nature of meta-synthesis is essential for researchers aiming to conduct a synthesis of qualitative research findings. By embracing the qualitative aspects of meta-synthesis, researchers can uncover rich insights, identify common themes, and develop theoretical frameworks that contribute to the advancement of knowledge in their field.

When undertaking a meta-synthesis, it is crucial to adhere to established guidelines and best practices for qualitative research synthesis. This includes conducting a comprehensive literature search, applying rigorous inclusion and exclusion criteria, employing systematic data extraction methods, and employing appropriate qualitative analysis techniques.

By recognizing the qualitative nature of meta-synthesis and appreciating its unique contribution to research synthesis, researchers can harness its potential to generate new knowledge, inform practice, and bridge gaps in existing literature. Through the integration of qualitative research findings, meta-synthesis serves as a valuable tool for advancing our understanding of complex phenomena, amplifying the voices of participants, and promoting evidence-informed decision-making.

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